Types of Slavery and Bondage
READ THE STATE DEPARTMENTS BROCHURE ON HUMAN
Forced labor, including forced child labor, encompasses the range of activities – recruiting,
harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining – involved when a person uses force or physical threats,
psychological coercion, abuse of the legal process, deception, or other coercive means to compel someone to work.
Once a person’s labor is exploited by such means, the person’s previous consent or effort to obtain employment with
the trafficker becomes irrelevant. Migrants are particularly vulnerable to this form of human trafficking, but
individuals also may be forced into labor in their own countries. Likewise a child can be a victim regardless of
where the nonconsensual exploitation occurs. Some indicators of possible forced labor of a child include
situations in which a child appears to be in the custody of a nonfamily member who requires the child to perform
work that financially benefits someone outside the child’s family and does not offer the child the option of
leaving. Female victims of forced labor, especially in domestic servitude, are often also sexually exploited.
Bonded Labor or Debt Bondage - One form of coercion is the use of a bond or debt. U.S.
law prohibits the use of a debt or other threats of financial harm as a form of coercion and the Palermo Protocol
requires its criminalization as a form of trafficking in persons. Some workers inherit debt; others fall victim to
traffickers or recruiters who unlawfully exploit an initial debt assumed as a term of employment. Debt
incurred by migrant laborers in their home countries, often with the support of labor agencies and employers in the
destination country, can also contribute to a situation of debt bondage. Such circumstances may occur in the
context of employment-based temporary work programs when a worker’s legal status in the country is tied to the
employer and workers fear seeking redress.
Involuntary domestic servitude Involuntary domestic servitude is a form of human trafficking found
in circumstances that create unique vulnerabilities for victims. Domestic workplaces are informal (private
residences), connected to off-duty living quarters, and often not shared with other workers. Such an
isolating environment is conducive to exploitation because authorities cannot inspect homes as easily as they can
formal workplaces. Investigators and service providers also report cases of untreated illnesses and widespread
sexual abuse, which in some cases may be symptoms of a situation of involuntary servitude.
Unlawful recruitment and use of child soldiers The unlawful recruitment or use of children –
through force, fraud, or coercion – by armed forces for combat or other forms of labor is a manifestation of human
trafficking. Perpetrators may be government armed forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. Many
children are forcibly abducted to be used as combatants. Others are unlawfully made to work as porters, cooks,
guards, servants, messengers, or spies. Young girls can be forced to marry or have sex with male combatants, but
both male and female child soldiers are often sexually abused by armed groups.
Sex Trafficking When an adult is coerced, forced, or deceived into prostitution – or maintained
in prostitution through one of these means after initially consenting – that person is a victim of
trafficking. Sex trafficking also may occur within debt bondage, as women and girls are forced to continue in
prostitution through the use of unlawful “debt” purportedly incurred through their transportation, recruitment, or
even their crude “sale” – which exploiters insist they must pay off before they can be free. A person’s initial
consent to participate in prostitution is not legally determinative: that person, if thereafter held in service
through psychological manipulation or physical force, is a trafficking victim.
Child sex Trafficking When a child (under 18 years of age) is induced to perform a commercial sex
act, it constitutes human trafficking regardless of whether there is any force, fraud, or coercion. There are
no exceptions to this rule: no cultural or socioeconomic rationalizations should prevent the rescue of children
from sexual servitude. The use of children in the commercial sex trade is prohibited both under U.S. law and by
statute in most countries around the world.
Is indentured servitude slavery? Before the Civil War, slaves
and indentured servants were considered personal property, and they or their descendants could be sold or
inherited like any other personalty. Like other property, human chattel was governed largely by laws of individual
Economic Tax Slavery - If a society over taxes individuals, there
becomes a degree of economic slavery. 100% tax is pure slavery. Any group or individual who is taxed and
receives on benefits commuserate with the tax, is subjected to a form of slavery.